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A Research On Reminiscence and Acclimation of Oryza Sativa Flakes Snacks Among Adolescents

Kanchana. A, Arun.A* and Vijayalakshmi.S

School of Hotel and Catering Management Vels University,P.V. Vaithiyalingam Salai,Velan Nagar,Chennai, India.


The adolescents from this Z generation in India prefers to image the western culture, it is this scenario which has immensely changed the snacking habits from traditional healthy to unhealthy snacks among Indian adolescents. The study leads to an awareness of health consciousness among the adolescents on the search for traditional, nutritious and health promoting food options.
This research’s aim is to determine adolescent’s preferences and specific attributes in the preparation of oryza sativa (red rice) flakes that drive acceptability through descriptive analysis and preference mapping on snacks with red rice flakes.
The results exhibited a highly positive correlation in the preference of traditional snacks. Preference mapping and percentage showed higher overall liking scores for samples characterized by snacks made with red rice flakes. Overall, this study was successful in determining the adolescent’s acceptability with red rice flakes snacks through preference mapping.
This study proposes that the adolescents to minimise the consumption of westernized snacks in the contrary to develop a habit to consume more traditional ingredients with trendy and innovative red rice recipes. The study concludes that these standardized recipes will lure all the age groups to consume red rice in their diet.


Adolescents; Oryza Sativa (Red Rice) flakes; Health Benefits; Traditional snack recipes

Copy the following to cite this article:

A. Kanchana, Arun A .Vijayalakshmi. S. A Research On Reminiscence and Acclimation of Oryza Sativa Flakes Snacks Among Adolescents. Curr Res Nutr Food Sci 2017;5(3).

Copy the following to cite this URL:

A. Kanchana, Arun A .Vijayalakshmi. S. A Research On Reminiscence and Acclimation of Oryza Sativa Flakes Snacks Among Adolescents. Curr Res Nutr Food Sci 2017;5(3).


Snacks are small portion for a quick meal which can be consumed by children, adolescent, adults and senior citizens to enable them to satisfy their hunger between lunch and dinner.

Snack can be termed for a small portion, light and quickly consumable food or drink; it is consumed between the regular meals1.  Eating healthy snacks fuels the body with energy, improves the brain power, regulates weight management, boosts up mood and makes the day pleasant2. Our Indian traditional foods have been recognized as functional foods due to the presence of body healing chemicals, dietary fibres, high vitamins and mineral constituents.  Adolescents consume more snacks than other age groups.  Nowadays our healthy traditional snacks have been overwhelmed by modern westernized junks.  These junk snacks constitute mere sugar, fat and calories which act as the origin for all major health problems3. Consuming these unhealthy junks makes the adolescent to skip their regular meals, 4   overeating and inactive life styles leads to overweight and obesity5.

Thus the study is an attempt to bring out traditional snacks into practice.  The study formulates recipes of red flattened rice, the common healthy snacks. Red flattened rice is a wholesome food with high nutritious value and easily digestible form of rice variety commonly available across India.  It is used to prepare light snacks and fast food varieties and consumed as a staple breakfast in north – eastern regions. Making of Red rice flakes constitutes a procedure of soaking the paddy for few days where a partial fermentation is done and  the probiotic bacteria are developed5 then boiled, dried and pounded to  loosens the hull from the paddy and makes  it into a flattened rice flakes. 6

Originally our ancestors had a strong faith that food was a gift from God and this   food was consumed for its health benefits. Man in every community followed a separate food belief system. Additionally food   had   spiritual values.  In India it has been included plain or with other dishes as an offering to their God and Goddess especially for Lord Murugan during Karthigai Deepam, Lord Krishna during Krishna Jayanthi. Many recipes have been made with flattened red rice flakes like uppuma, payasam, puttu, masala urundai, kolakatai etc.  The oryza sativa  ( red rice) flakes is renowned for its very healthy and nutritionally strong benefits. They   were highly recommended and consumed by our ancestors. Flattened rice sweetened with jaggery are still consumed in villages of Tamil Nadu,

Red rice flake is unpolished so it is rich in carbohydrates (86.22g). A 100gm of flakes consist of minerals like sodium (763 mg), potassium (110mg), Protein (6.69g) Iron (5.5 mg) and also rich in Vitamin A and Vitamin C7.  Red rice flakes are gluten and cholesterol free hence can be consumed by diabetics as an alternative to wheat.  The antioxidant present in the unpolished husk of red rice flakes improves metabolism and prevents colon cancer8. The Magnesium and other minerals present in red rice improve the bone strength, fights against asthma and reduces the risk of obesity9.

The Objective of the Study

To incorporate the Indian Snacks with oryza sativa  (red rice) flakes. Ranking the preference of red rice incorporated snacks among the adolescents.To highlight the importance and nutritive value of incorporated snacks.Snack recipes are incorporated with the red rice flakes. Sensory evaluation of organoletic qualities are analysed for the recipes.

Materials and Methods

The study comprises of developing Indian snack with selected recipes suitable for adolescents were incorporated with the red rice flakes.  Recipes selected were the most commonly   consumed and preferred by the adolescent age group.

Twenty five recipes were carefully selected to meet the pattern of consumption, health benefits and the preferences of the adolescents. The incorporation of recipes with red rice flakes were done and among the twenty five recipes fifteen recipes were selected , the criteria of selection were easy to prepare, constituting  inexpensive and commonly available ingredients, nutritive in nature and acceptable preference by adolescents.

Collection of Ingredients

The ingredients for the recipes were bought from market and organic stores in and around Pallavaram Chennai.  The quality of ingredients is inspected and considered for the best outcome of the products.

Preparation of Recipes

The recipes are prepared under their authentic methods of preparation; all recipes are formulated with the incorporation of oryza sativa  (red rice) flakes as per the required proportions. The recipes were standardized and  prepared at Advanced Training Kitchen in School of Hotel and Catering Management, Vels University under the guidance of Chef in charge by the final year students.

Table 1: Snacks with their Code

1 Aval Payasam SNACK 1
2 Aval Kolukattai SNACK 2
3 Aval Keerai Adai SNACK 3
4 Aval Milagu Vathal SNACK 4
5 Aval Kanji SNACK 5
6 Aval sprout salad SNACK 6
7 Aval Paruppu thanni SNACK 7
8 Aval Coconut Milk SNACK 8
9 Aval idli SNACK 9
10 Aval ulundhu kali SNACK 10
11 Aval Chakkarai Valli Urundai SNACK 11
12 Kara Aval SNACK 12
13 Aval Cutlet SNACK 13
14 Aval Vellam Pongal SNACK 14
15 Aval Urundai SNACK 15
16 Aval Kesari SNACK 16
17 Aval kothumai Maleetha SNACK 17
18 Aval Halwa SNACK 18
19 Aval Dosai SNACK 19
20 Aval Upma SNACK 20
21 Aval Puttu SNACK 21
22 Aval Kheer SNACK 22
23 Aval Pachadi SNACK 23
24 Aval Somas SNACK 24
25 Aval Vada SNACK 25


Sensory Evaluation of Recipes  

All the twenty five recipes are coded as SNACK 1 to SNACK 25 respectively; names of the recipes and their ingredient composition were not disclosed to the panellist members. The panel consist of 50 students as members from Departments of Biochemistry, Engineering, Visual Communication, and Hotel & Catering Management at Vels University pursing their under graduation. The age group and their own interest in participation to taste food were considered as the criteria in selecting the panellist members.

The panellist members were groups into ten and five snacks were served to a group per day at a perfect interval of time for the best output of result, hereby the evaluation was carried out for five days for all five groups to evaluate all twenty five snack varieties.  The panellists were provided with the sensory evaluation (Table 2) score card to mark their score for the snacks served. The score ranges from 1- Dislike Extremely to 9- Like Extremely evaluating the organoleptic qualities of the snacks including the parameters like taste, texture, colour, flavour, and their acceptance of the snacks.


Table 2: Sensory evaluation score card Table 2: Sensory evaluation score card 

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Statistical Analysis

All the recipes were incorporated with oryza sativa  (red rice) flakes and served  to the adolescents. This study selected the students as the panellist members so the opinion from the adolescent were collected through the sensory evaluation score card. The data collected are statistically analysed using the SPSS (21.0) software, initially the data are checked for their reliability. Upon the overall acceptance by the panellist the snacks are ranked using Friedman’s ranking test, the test used to ranks a group with lesser number of variables10.

Evaluation of Nutritive value

Upon the preference ranking by the adolescents the snack taken the first ten positions are considered and their nutritive values are calculated using the book titled Nutritive Value of Indian Foods published by National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR  published in the year 2015.

Result and Discussions

Sensory evaluation data were analysed using the SPSS (21.0) software, the data collected from the panellist are reliable (Table 3) with the Cronbach’s Alpha value 0.782.

Table 3: Reliability test

No of items N Cronbach’s Alpha
25 50 0.782


Friedman’s Test

Friedman’s test is done to find out the ranking position of the twenty five dishes overall acceptance among the panelist. The organoleptic qualities of the twenty fives recipes were collected through the   score data. Table 4(a) and Table 4(b) exhibit the raking of preferences of the snacks by the panellist members.  Since the p value is 0.000 is less than 0.05 (p<0.01), there is a significant difference in the ranking of the rice flakes newly standardized recipes.

It is concluded that the panelist of Vels University have ranked the sensory evaluation of the twenty rice flakes recipes in a significantly different manner.   Out of the twenty five recipes considered for analysis, Aval Coconut Milk has the lowest mean rank, followed by Aval Halwa and Aval Vellam Ponagal.   Hence, it is concluded that the Aval Coconut Milk recipe is the most desired dish out of the twenty five standardized  recipes.

The ranking positions are more significant (p- value is .000) and the value of chi-square value (167.524) is high.

Table Table 3 a

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Table 4 (b) Test Statisticsa
N 50
Chi-Square 167.524
Df 24
Asymp. Sig. .000
a. Friedman Test


Table 5: Nutritive Values of the Snacks Table 5: Nutritive Values of the Snacks 

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The nutritive value of snacks is briefly exhibited in Table 5.  It is prominent in the table that among the twenty five snacks recipe’s nutritive values, selected recipes are discussed with special references to the high nutritive content in the snacks.   The snack 6 is high in protein, snack 9 contains energy, snack 22 is rich in calcium, snack 3 is high in phosphorous and snack 4 is contains iron.   Thus the snacks incorporated with red rice flakes are more nutritive and meeting the requirements of the adolescents.

Table 6 Sensory Evaluation Result Table 6: Sensory Evaluation Result 

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Table 7: Correlations between Quantity difference in snacks with friends, Street food, traditional snacks preference and more than sixteen snacks

Snacks consumption increases being with friends Street foodconsumption
Snacks consumption increases being with friends Pearson Correlation 1 0.336
Sig(2 – tailed) 0.05
Street foodconsumption Pearson Correlation 0.336 1
Sig(2 – tailed) 0.05
** Correlation is significant at the 0.05(2tailed)


Table 7 shows that there is a linear positive correlation between Quantity difference with friends and Street food consumption among the students. The correlation coefficient is .336 and it is statistically significant as a p value is lesser than 0.05.  It is understood from the analysis that the adolescents consumption of street food is very much on the higher side when they are with their friends.

Table 8: Correlations between Traditional snacks preference and more than sixteen snacks

Traditional Snack preference Prefers more than 16 snacks incorporated with rice flakes
Traditional Snack preference Pearson Correlation 1 0.489
Sig(2 – tailed) 0.00
Prefers more than 16 snacks incorporated with rice flakes Pearson Correlation 0.489 1
Sig(2 – tailed) 0.00
*Correlation is significant at the 0.00(2-tailed) level


Table 8 shows that the Traditional snacks preference  and liked more than  sixteen snacks  among the students  are positively correlated and correlation co efficient .489 it is statistically significant ( p<.05). There is positive correlation between  Traditional snacks preference  and liked more than  sixteen snacks. The  consumption of snacks  quantity is positively correlated with street food consumption  at (r = 0.336, p <0.05).

Among the students the Traditional snacks preference is positively correlated with students liking  more than  sixteen snacks at (r = 0 .489, p<0.05).The result  exhibits that all constructs  used to measure the students preferences to traditional snacks    are associated and the correlation is significant at 0.05 level.


There is to a great extent of diversity in traditional healthy snacks in India because the regional healthy foods have  originally  evolved suitable to the climate, traditions, and cultivation practices of the individual  state.

Additionally, certain foods have become more popular in certain  state according to the health condition of a population.

This study confirms that the healthy nutrients of the oryza sativa  (red rice) flakes is gluten free, it provides immediate  energy to our system, improves  the bowel  movements and stabilizes the blood sugar level. Additionally it provides essential source of B1 vitamin to our human body.  Red rice flakes prevents primary and secondary coronary disease, allergies, aids in digestion preventing constipation among adolescents.

This study concludes that the snacks incorporated with red rice flakes are considerable preferred by the adolescents for their freshness and nutritive values. More traditional ingredients can be incorporated into the daily meal pattern can reduce the consumption of junk and preserved food among the adolescents making a healthy generations.


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